Psychotherapist Per Isdal has described violence as follows: “Violence is any action targeted at a person who, through this action – by hurting, scaring, violating or causing pain – makes the person do something against his/her will or stop doing something he/her wants to do.” (Per Isdal ATV, Oslo 2002).
Below you’ll find an overview of the different types of violence:
Physical violence is any form of physical assault and force; being hit, kicked, denied sleep, food or medicine.
Psychological violence is being belittled, criticized, humiliated, controlled or isolated, being persecuted and prevented from seeing friends and family.
Verbal violence is threats. E.g. being threatened with kidnapping of your child, threats of physical violence or stalking; or it can be threats of suicide.
Material violence is being denied things of your own or personal belongings being destroyed. It can also be being forced to leave your home without your belongings.
Economic violence is not being allowed to handle your own money. It can be that you’re just handed an allowance, or that you have to show receipts for your purchases. It can also be being threatened to take a loan in the bank.
Sexualized violence is being forced into sex og forced to types of sex that you don’t want. It can also be other forms of sexualized violations or being forced into prostitution.
Digital violence is monitoring of e.g. your Facebook profile, mail and phone or threats on the web or cell phone. Or it can be that you are obliged to constantly text or call to inform on where you are and with whom.
Honour-related violence concerns the family’s honour. The violence is accepted by the family and more than one person is the perpetrator. Honour-related violence can be forced marriage, social control, emotional strain and being excluded from the family.
When you have been subjected to violence you know that it can happen again. Even though it might have been a while you fear that it will happen again, but you don’t know when it will happen. Then the violence is latently present in the relationship.
Maybe you try in every possible way to avoid violence and it takes over everything you do. As long as you are limited in your actions in order to avoid violence, the violence is present in the relationship. Maybe you have adapted to such an extent that the violent episodes can be averted. You can have doubts as to whether the person is still violent, seeing that the violence in this way can be hidden in the relationship for many years.